Monthly Archives: March 2012

Museums, Education, and Programming: Issues and Problems

By Brandon Mason

One of the primary goals of every museum should be to educate the public through their collections. The way in which a museum educates the public is multifaceted. The interactions between collection and visitor can be as varied as the objects within the collection. Depending on the age group of the target audience, a museum collection can be utilized in a variety of ways in order to deliver an educational lesson.

Children's Museum in Tucson, AZ

In Cornelia Brüninghaus-Knube’s article, “Museum Education in the Context of Museum Functions,” she discusses several ways in which museums’ collections interact with the public for educational purposes. One of the ways Brüninghaus-Knube states that collections interact is through exhibit labels and captions on individual items. Technology has also become an important element of museum education. Visitors often learn through audio, visual, and computer media presented in the museum.

Another way in which the collections interact is through tour guides and educational speech. Brüninghaus-Knube also mentions activity workshops, field exercises, and tactile displays and aids which allow visitors controlled hands-on experience with cultural items in collections.

In addition to the several methods already mentioned, Brüninghaus-Knube points out that although the interaction is intended to be educational, it also provides an entertainment value to the visitors. Games, role-playing theater, and demonstrations provide entertainment and educational opportunities.  The many ways, in which museums use their collections in order to educate the public, illustrates the importance placed on education by museum management.[1]

According to Nina Simon, museum visitation has dropped due to availability of information to the public via the internet and social networks.[2] Without having read Simon’s book, I assumed the decrease in museum visitation was due to increased access to information via the internet, social networks, and television programming. With so much history and culture available at one’s fingertips, why leave the house to learn about the Sam Davis home?

Old Museum Display: La Porte County Historical Society & Museum in La Porte, IN -

I believe that many people have the idea that museums are just dusty old displays cases filled with an artifact and a note card telling what it is. While, sadly some museums are exactly what I just described, many are beginning to give the public reasons to visit. I believe that the only way to get a larger audience into museums in 2012 is through interactive and entertaining methods.

Museums have to offer a cultural learning experience that is not offered through watching television or surfing the internet. Simon’s solution to the museum visitation problem is to develop museums into participatory cultural institutions. She defines a participatory institution as a place where visitors can create, share, and connect with each other around content.[3]

Simon states that the first thing museums have to do in order to combat the current trend is by becoming more comfortable, accessible, and convenient to the public.[4]With that said, museums and libraries must adapt to fit the needs of today’s visitors by allowing the public to engage with the content and collections in ways that create new dialogue.

In a sense, participatory simply means to establish an environment in which visitors are actively involved with the content of the institution in their own way. Without making these necessary changes, museums will continue to be in danger of becoming useless to the general public. By producing a more comfortable and inviting environment in which the public can readily access and learn, museums and libraries will be able to effectively compete with corporate entities. If museums refuse to change, the public will simply seek more convenient outlets for knowledge and culture.

[1] Cornelia Brüninghaus-Knube, “Museum Education in the Context of Museum Functions,” ICOM – International Council of Museums and Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook. Selections: • Museum Education, pp. 119-132
[2] Nina Simon, The Participatory Museum – Preface
[3] Ibid.

Posted by on March 27, 2012 in museums, Uncategorized


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Ancient Egypt and Public History: Connections? By Callie Lopeman

For most people, including many historians, ancient history is an irrelevant time so far in the past that it is no longer important for the people of today; interesting to watch a few History Channel shows on but not anything that actually matters.

The Sphinx, Photo by Callie Lopeman

However, I firmly believe that there is so much that can be learned and taught from ancient history. Upon closer examination, it is easy to see that ancient civilizations are the window to the actual development of society and the cultural roots of the human race.

In the beginning, the entire population of an area would have been consumed with farming as the necessary component to survival. Then, as farming methods became more effective, there would have been extra food, meaning that everyone no longer had to farm to survive. Because of this, some people would have become more important and some societal stratification began to occur. During this early time, the roots of traditions and rituals that are later vital to the culture can already be seen developing. Then, as time and the society advance, these rituals also grow and shape the foundations of the belief, moral and political systems of that civilization.

Deir el Bahri, Photo by Callie Lopeman

By looking at ancient civilizations as a connecting tool between the prehistoric and our own society, it is possible to see humanity’s progression from simple farmers to a diverse and complex society which, in many cases, has directly influenced our own culture. It is this ability to actually watch the cultural growth of humanity and the later interconnections in ancient civilizations through trade and military force is what has long interested me in history.

So, what does all of this have to do with public history? How do ancient trade routes and farming techniques matter to the relatively new field of public history? First of all, because ancient civilizations WERE ancient and therefore thousands of years ago, there is really only one good way to learn anything about them: archaeology. This involves excavating sites to reveal the ancient structures there and collecting artifacts to learn more about the culture. These artifacts are the greatest connection between ancient civilizations and public history because the artifacts go from the archaeological site to a museum. The museum then puts them on display to educate the public on the civilization from whence they came.

Karnak Temple, Photo by Callie Lopeman

Another way that ancient civilizations have become connected to public history is that when these archaeological sites and artifacts are found, books are then published to inform the public of the findings.

Okay, the importance of ancient civilizations and their relevance to public history has now been established, but why do I care? First, I care because this is what fascinates me. It always has and probably always will. The ancient past is still filled with holes, mysteries that only discovery in the field can solve. Although much of the past is lost forever, it is some of these holes that I hope to fill. While I plan to get my PhD in Egyptology, the time that I plan to study is the Roman occupation of Egypt. This is an area that has largely been ignored by scholars in the past, so I hope to be able to shed more light on an otherwise fairly uninvestigated time in ancient history.

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Posted by on March 13, 2012 in Uncategorized